Tools for an EU Science Diplomacy
This report maps national Science Diplomacy tools used in a sample of EU Member States and some countries outside the EU. The examples of Science Diplomacy are classified in three categories: strategic tools, operational tools and support tools. Furthermore, more detailed descriptions of Science Diplomacy policies and practices are presented for some selected countries: Germany, Spain, France, Switzerland, the UK, the US and Japan. Based upon an assessment of what exists in the EU at national levels and what exists outside the EU, a set of six recommendations towards the EU is presented regarding the further development of an EU strategy for Science Diplomacy. These recommendations deal with how the EU can contribute to supporting the Member States Science Diplomacy policies and practices and with how an EU Science Diplomacy can be elaborated that is in tune with the EUs Foreign and External Relations policy. The report ends with a proposal regarding the strategic vision that should underpin the EUs efforts to enhance its Science Diplomacy capacities.