Blog - Connecting Ideas
Both the United Nations and the African Union have adopted or drafted concepts of protection of civilians in peace operations. One key difference is that the African Union’s concept has an extra tier: rights-based protection. Kseniya Oksamytna and Nina Wilén argue this difference is the result of incidental adaptation, a novel concept to explain change in international organisations.
The COP27 Simulation organised by UNU-EHS, UNU-CRIS, and UNU-MERIT brought together inquiring minds among UNU Master students and interns who spent two intensive days debating climate action goals. Iana Ovsiannikova recaps the delegates’ journey to the adoption of the final decision.
For great powers and small states alike, geopolitical eras provide a cue to foreign policy orientations. This geopolitical reality must be understood within the context of “great-power leadership” and the national interest, outlines Nand C. Bardouille, as is well-known by the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc of small states.
The Escazu Agreement, adopted as the only binding treaty at the second United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, is the first and only one designed by and for Latin America as a region in environmental issues. Tainá Siman discusses the innovations that the Agreement brings to climate action as well as the role of political cycles and regional institutionalisation in Latin America.
Regional cooperation and integration (RCI) is emerging as a crucial policy tool to address the complex, transboundary challenges we face today. From the current global food and energy crisis to a post Covid-19 world, RCI can help reduce risks and subsequent crises explain Imed Drine and Kadir Basboga.
What was scheduled to be Gaëlle Le Pavic's PhD fieldwork, turned into a volunteering experience with Ukrainians fleeing the war. Conducting fieldwork is an epiphenomenon when war is close and dramatically changing the life of millions of people. This reality pushed her to question the role of a researcher in such situations, and share her thoughts through this blog.
Being reliant on foreign markets for crucial inputs is already an undesired vulnerability and volatility that has, almost overnight, become geopolitical. Russia is Brazil’s largest supplier of fertilisers. Tareq Helou examines how the latest developments in Ukraine have impacted the critical agricultural relations between Russia and Brazil.
Avoiding Short Term Solutions to an Energy Crisis with Long Term Consequences: The Energy Relation Between Algeria and the EU
Since the invasion of Russia into Ukraine, the EU has been looking for alternatives to diminish its high reliance on Russian gas with Algeria being on top of its list. However, new hydrocarbon explorations take time and divert funding away from solutions in line with the Paris Agreement. Reinhilde Bouckaert explores a more steadfast approach to the EU its decarbonisation policies over the short, medium, and long-term in its relationship with Algeria.
With the climate crisis bearing its dramatic consequences across the world, 'green' solutions by policymakers are gaining prominence. However, the drive to design and implement ‘green’ policies sometimes obscures the distinction between environment and climate policy. This has the perverse effect of conflating two very distinct crises and concealing the need for trade-offs, argues Kevin Le Merle in this blog.
How are CSOs Contributing to the GCM Process? The Experience of a Returnee-Led Group from Gambia Unable to Attend The IMRF
A distinctive trait of the Global Compact for Migration (GCM) was the involvement of civil-society organisations (CSOs). While CSOs have been involved in negotiation spaces, organisations from the Global South have lamented hindrances in their participation during the ratification stage. Rossella Marino and YAIM explain how CSOs are still not fairly engaged in the Global Compact for Migration owing to their provenance and (lack of) endowments.
Regionalism And Ideology: How Do Presidential Changes Affect Regional Organisations in South America?
Ideological confrontations have brought challenges and stagnation to integration projects in South America. Considering the pink tide of the 2000s, the conservative wave of the 2010s and the emerging new wave of left-wing presidents, Carlos Fonseca uses the case of the upcoming elections in Colombia to examine how changes of president and ideology affect integration in the region.
Climate change presents new challenges for governance practices. These challenges are particularly evident in the Great Lakes region, where long-standing governance arrangements have allowed for shared management alongside a growing demand for more democratic, community- and equity-centred approaches to water governance. Cameron Fioret explores why identifying innovative water governance mechanisms may foster political voice, equity, recognition, and participation.
Region building in the Caspian Sea Basin: Do Recent Developments Point Towards an Integrated Region?
The Caspian Sea Basin provides an interesting case of region building processes especially in the light of recent developments including the building of energy corridors, emerging environmental pressures and resolving of the legal status of the Caspian Sea in 2018. Natalia Skripnikova and Servaas Taghon explore whether these developments could indicate an integrated Caspian Sea Region.
Over six million smallholder farmers across 48 countries depend on seaweed for their livelihoods. This blog by Elizabeth Cook, Nidhi Nagabhatla and Louise Shaxson outlines what’s currently happening in this little known industry and explains seaweed’s potential as a ‘wonder crop’ that can make a considerable contribution to the pursuit of key development objectives.
While the focus of Russia's invasion of Ukraine remains on state governments and Vladimir Putin, paradiplomacy lies at its very core. In this blog, Philipp Hänstche argues how what ought to be a multi-layered approach to foster mutual understanding has now become an instrument for an invasion.
High-level summits between the European Union (EU) and the African Union (AU) are often criticised as being photo opportunities without substance. With awkward issues, governance challenges and diplomatic scandals looming over the ties, the mismatch between the two blocs is apparent. Frank Mattheis examines these hurdles in a new blog.
The seaweed cultivation industry supports the livelihoods of over 6 million small-scale farmers and processors across the globle. Concrete actions to ensure the sustainbilty of this industry is thus, the need of the hour. Elizabeth Cottier-Cook, Nidhi Nagabhala and Louise Shaxson highlight the actions needed to support technological innovation, capacity building, and effective regulations to safeguard this industry.
With 63 transboundary river basins covering about 64% of Africa's land area, there is spatial variation in water access and distribution, and limited clarity about the frameworks for the efficient management of water resources. This blog post by Afaf Rahim, Erik Franckx, John Mukum Mbaku, Liliana Lizarazo- Rodriguez, Nidhi Nagabhatla, Ramazan Caner Sayan and Xavier Farré Fabregat focuses on conflicts involving the three largest basins in Africa: the Nile, Congo, and Lake Chad.
The EU's approach to combatting Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing (IUU) is a combination of ambiguity and ambition. On one hand, it sends out a message of strictness and zero tolerance; on the other, it allows dialogues between fishing vehicles and local authorities. What do these mixed signals imply? Lina Galvis, Niels Keijzer and Sarah Delputte assess.
From vaccine inequality to economic distress - the 15th session of the quadrennial conference for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) laid emphasis on the multitude of challenges facing the world today. In doing so, it solidified the support for the Bridgetown Coventant aimed at the integration of global trade and development besides also supporting the Spirit of Speightstown highlighting the need for mutlilateralism and international cooperation, writes Yuefen Li.
The Socioeconomics of International Migration Decisions: Insights from the Nigeria-Italy Migration Corridor
The role of human agency and capabilities has been largely ignored in the migration discourse. In this blog based on his PhD dissertation, Chinedu Obi examines the various decision making facets involved in the process of migration within the Nigeria-Italy Corridor.
Whom is the Covid-19 vaccine suitable for? The lack of a uniform approach towards Covid-19 vaccination has arisen confusion across regions, countries and organisations. Can pregnant and diabetic individuals be vaccinated? Different countries have different recommendations. To ameliorate this discrepancy, governments must actively provide reasoning for their respective guidelines, explains Henry Kwan.
Covid-19 has made it clear that pandemics don't recognise borders. The crucial role of local governments and paradiplomacy in navigating crises such as the current one, has also become abundantly clear. While the situation at hand presents several challenges, it is an opportunity to strenghthen the emergence of paradiplomacy rooted within dialogue and best practices, argues Nahuel Oddone.
How is Brexit linked to the 2015 refugee crisis and subsequent migration policies in Europe? Used by the 'Leave' campaigners, immigration was a critical factor in determining the result of the Brexit referendum, argues Sevgi Temizisler as she explores the politicisation of migration policies in Europe and their implications for integration within the continent.
Mutual Trust in Regional and Interregional Cooperation on Counterterrorism: Approaches from EU and ASEAN
A lack of trust among nations is one of the key barriers in the international cooperation against terrorism. Celine C. Cocq explores how mutual trust has been developed and operationalised to facilitate cooperation against terrorism between competent national authorities within the European Union (EU) and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Is the Pacific Alliance(PA) really a unique blueprint for regional integration as it claims to be? This contribution by Ana Maria Palacio Valencia examines the PA from an institutional perspective unpacking its design, ideational underpinnings and questioning whether its current institutional framework is sustainable to support the association in the long term.
Regional orders are a salient feature of the world we live in today. Global and domestic dynamics continue to evolve as regions undergo transformation. In the face of such change, Gonzalez Levaggi decodes the pathways for confrontational and cooperative regional orders; while seeking answers to the influence of 1) extra-regional great powers on regional orders and 2) domestic factors on regional transformation.
While overlapping regional organisations have been discussed in recent years, the on-ground impact of their interactions remains unclear. Presenting findings from her doctoral dissertation, Clarissa Ribeiro uses the cases of South America and Africa to analyse the dynamics of overlapping regional organisations when they have concurrent competencies over political crises and the impact on their respective regions.
As a transnational political conflict across four states (Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey), the Kurdish issue involves various sub-state, state, and global actors. Till now, the EU's image in the issue has been a normative one. However, the past two decades have witnessed the evolution of this role shaped by common interests and interactions argues Zana Kurda.
The Amazon Rainforest is essential for the survival of not just the regional but also the global population. The fragility of this vital ecosystem combined with the challenges within the Amazon region beckon a multidimensional governance approach argue Liliana Lizarazo Rodriguez, Doreen Montag, Elke Verhaeghe, Maria Antonia Tigre, and João de Freitas.
Referendums have been increasingly held to settle the most intensive self-determination conflicts. Kentaro Fujikawa argues that these post-conflict self-determination referendums have intended and unintended consequences for peacebuilding in war-torn societies.
Assumed to be nationalistic and inward looking, why do some populists engage in international and regional cooperation? Using key findings from their new book, Fredrik Söderbaum and Killian Spandler, contest the mainstream understanding of a typical populist leader. From Venezuela's Hugo Chavez to Hungary's Viktor Orban, the new book delves into why some populists not only engage, but actively promote regional cooperation.
Resolved to undo the controversial migration policies of his predecessor, Joe Biden faces a fragile challenge characterised by a divided Congress and complex border issues. Will Biden be able to deliver upon his election campaign promises and turn US into a migrant haven? Rossella Marino explores.
The complexity and diversity of interregionalism often makes any prediction beyond reach. Frank Mattheis argues, while the consequences of interregionalism can be intended and expected - they may also be unintended, unexpected, and often surprising.
One characteristic of the global response to Covid-19 has been that it has not been global. While this poses some challenges, it also offers opportunities - some of which, rather unexpected. Diana Owuor explores the interplay between regions and states in the aftermath of Covid-19.
How can policy responses ensure the sustainability of international trade agreements? Yann Duval, Runqiu Du, Gabrielle Marceau, Miho Shirotori and Taisuke Ito explain why improving existing trade agreements will help us prevent a total collapse of global supply chains in the future.
Over the past decade, Europe has led the way to tackle the energy and climate challenge. Kapil Narula argues, to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, European Union (EU) has to revamp its heating policies - since their progress has been inadequate at best. He also proposes that national roadmaps for heat decarbonisation should be leading the way for this long-overdue transformation.
The Pacific Alliance manifests the coexistence of multiple identities held by its intergovernmental and supranational group members. Angélica Guerra-Barón explains the central role played by languages and discourses, alongside domestic and regional decisions in shaping this collective identity.
The Dublin Regulation and Brexit are two thorny issues that have been negatively affecting the asylum seekers in Europe. Rossella Marino explains the dehumanised position of these asylum seekers and outlines why EU and the UK need to rethink their respective approaches in the post-Brexit era.
In tackling the Covid-19 pandemic, governments have taken to using all avenues and channels necessary to reach their peoples. Across Africa, explains Ryan Hambury, the popularity and widespread use of WhatsApp has provided both benefits and detriments in the fight against the pandemic, offering an avenue to interact directly with the millions who use the app daily, yet also being a vehicle for misinformation and highlighting concerns about censorship and press freedom.
With the European Green Deal initiative and its many different components, it appears as if the EU is now – at least rhetorically – making a commitment to transformational environmental justice and more attention to ecological effectiveness. Simon Schunz, Bram De Botselier and Sofía López Piqueres explore whether the EU’s institutional reforms equate to actual change, ask the question - does it contribute to genuinely protecting non-human nature?
Heralded as a ‘fresh start’ aimed at replacing the ad-hoc solutions found to face challenging situations at EU borders with a predictable and stable “migration-management system”, the European Union’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum has ignited fierce debate. Rossella Marino gives her take on the proposal and what it tells us about how the EU views itself in the context of migration.
Transaqua, the massive water infrastructure project first pitched in the 1970s, is back on the political agenda and claims it can reshape regional politics in Central Africa. However, questions remain over its feasibility and whether it can win over its various stakeholders to deliver on its ambitious agenda. Nidhi Nagabhatla and Ramazan Caner Sayan explore some of the key questions missing in the debates over what is supposedly the biggest water project in the world.
After initial slow reaction to the outbreak of COVID-19, the European Union (EU) has adopted a number of important measures to help contain the spread, support national health systems, and counter negative social and economic impacts of the pandemic. Yana Brovdiy delves into the "Team Europe" package and how, through its engagement with the EU's regional partners and neighbours, it demonstrates the Union's commitment to regional cooperation.
It is a time of great stress for regionalism in Latin America and Europe, exacerbated by the Covid-19 crisis. Detlef Nolte and Brigitte Weiffen compare the stress factors facing both regions and explore how resilient they are to the strengthening forces of disintegration.
As confinement becomes a passing memory, and the dramatic nature of the situation we have undergone in the past few months fades, Orsolya Gulyás, Trisha Meyer, Diāna Potjomkina and Jamal Shahin ask questions about how our societies react to crisis and how we interact as individuals during these moments.
Pakistan is one of the countries where COVID-19 is currently wreaking havoc. As the number of cases increase exponentially and further burden systems, an opportunity to strengthen healthcare and public health approaches emerges with a call for better regional coordination in managing current and future outbreaks, argue Zoha Anjum and Ayak Wel.
Fresh from his address to the UN Security Council, Josep Borrell argues that, with the stress on multilateralism exacerbated by COVID-19, the world needs a Security Council able to take the necessary decisions and not one that is paralysed by vetoes and political infighting, so multilateralism can deliver results for the people who need it most.
The risk to women in conflict-affected countries is at an all-time high. Ikhlas Mahmoud looks at the case in Sudan, where women, already suffering from issues related to poverty and vulnerability caused by violence and conflicts in their communities, are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 as they simply often cannot comply with health instructions that prevent the spread of the disease, and offers a set of recommendations to help protect some of those must vulnerable.
Despite the evident transnational dimension of Covid-19, most regional organisations across the world are struggling to emerge as key actors in the current crisis. Frank Mattheis looks at how, despite nation states jumping the gun, regional organisations might come out of the Covid-19 crisis with enhanced powers and resources, but warns more money may equal more problems.
The EU’s chequered response to COVID-19 has not only been detrimental for its image inside the bloc, but also externally, with a heavy toll to be paid in terms of its declining appeal abroad. Fabienne Bossuyt looks at the case of Central Asia, where both Russia and China were quick to position themselves as forces for good in fighting the pandemic, and puts forward the two options the EU has to maintain or increase its influence in the region post-COVID-19.
The COVID-19 pandemic will hit the world’s most vulnerable people the hardest, including the one billion people living in informal settlements and slums worldwide. This piece from UN Habitat outlines measures to build the resilience of informal settlements and slums to protect against the pandemic.
South Korea’s use of digital technology in the fight against COVID-19 has fostered great debate, drawing both criticism, for its privacy implications, and praise, for its effectiveness. JeongHyun Lee takes a closer look at the technologies used and asks how the digital transformation accelerated by COVID-19 can be sustainable in the long run.
The full impact of COVID-19 in Latin America will not be known for some time yet, but there is one certainty – inequality will grow. Irma Vásquez, Nicol Cárdenas and Daniela Acuña delve into two of the big issues regarding business in the region, the informal economy and the capacity for innovation.
While COVID-19 has seen scientific facts and evidence catch the ears of national policymakers, business leaders and the general public, over time it has become clear that many of the science-based policies used to contain COVID-19 are first and foremost based on ‘hypotheses’. Luc Soete looks at the science-based policy advice during the pandemic and whether a ‘hammer’ or a ‘nudge’ is the best tool in this crisis.
While a third of the global population is under lockdown because of COVID-19, the effects of these unprecedented measures are not uniform across countries. Rossella Marino looks at how the lockdown is affecting the Gambia, a nation that has a largely informal economic system and a heavy reliance on tourism, putting this new democracy to the political test and potentially driving more Gambians to migrate further afield.
Will the COVID-19 Crisis Herald the End of Neoliberal Globalisation and the European Union’s Free Trade Doctrine?
Not so fast, write Jan Orbie and Ferdi De Ville. Neoliberal globalisation’s death has been announced during many crises over the past decades, only to come out unscathed, or even reinforced. Although neoliberalism is (again) challenged, its resilience cannot be underestimated, and the alternatives might not be as progressive and emancipatory as deglobalisation advocates have in mind.
Where There’s a Will, There’s a Way: The Case for Greater Cooperation between Russia and the EU in Central Asia
The European Union and Russia may seem strange bedfellows in Central Asia given the ongoing geopolitical rivalry between them. However, as they both share an interest in a stable, prosperous and secure Central Asia, and have very complementary expertise and capabilities in areas in which they are both already active, Fabienne Bossuyt argues that there is significant opportunity for cooperation, and the underlying will to make it happen.
The virus that triggered a supply shock in China has now caused a global shock and significant economic pain seems unavoidable in all countries. A new report from the World Bank looks at how countries in East Asia and the Pacific must take action now – including urgent investments in healthcare capacity and targeted fiscal measures – to mitigate some of the immediate impacts.
Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa is forecast to fall sharply from 2.4% in 2019 to -2.1 to -5.1% in 2020 due to COVID-19, the first recession in the region over the past 25 years. A new report from the World Bank provides analysis of the issues shaping Africa’s economic future.
For those unfamiliar with the “spaghetti bowls” that are Free Trade Agreements, navigating between various regional formats might seem challenging. This is where, argues Zane Šime, the forthcoming Regional Integration Knowledge System (RIKS) platform will come in handy, serving as a promising springboard for a deeper dive into the intricacies of multilateral consultations and collaboration.
Health has long been defined as a policy problem to be addressed at the regional level by MERCOSUR, with COVID-19 set to put its past successes to the test. Andrea Bianculli examines the history of regional health governance in the region and why COVID-19 is more than just an opportunity for cooperation in Latin America.
Although one cannot predict what the long-term impact of COVID-19 will be on the world economy and on the geopolitical situation, at a minimum it will have profound effects overtime on the way the world is politically, economicaly and socially organised. Richard Higgott and Luk Van Langenhove posit that this could well be the tipping point that will eventually change the current world order, and Europe and the EU must be better prepared.
The Sobering Reality of Unpredicted Scenarios: COVID-19, Health and Regional Politics in Latin America
While the state still exercises undoubted and indisputable regulatory power over public health decisions and over societies within their own territorial limits, the scope and implications of health crises, as manifested in the COVID-19 pandemic, are and will be a cross-border and global problem. Pia Riggirozzi looks at how this crisis is being tackled across Latin America, and the tension between national and regional responses.
As the COVID-19 pandemic sends shockwaves across the world and as countries continue to shut down borders, ban visitors from highly infected countries and suspend flights, refugees caught up in overcrowded camps should be at the heart of the fight against the virus. Anicée Van Engeland and Sherine El Taraboulsi-McCarthy examine how we can enforce the right to health for the most vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic.
As planes with medical supplies arrive "from Russia with love" and Cuban doctors touch down in Italy, the building of post-COVID-19 narratives has already begun. Domenico Valenza takes a closer look at the rise of health diplomacy, its history, and what High Representative of the EU Josep Borrell calls a “struggle for influence through spinning and the politics of generosity”.
Beyond the terrible loss of life, the economic impact of the coronavirus will be dramatic and long-lasting. Oscar Guinea and Iacopo Monterosa look at what trade policy can do to support the fight against the coronavirus, beginning with removing the restrictions and tariffs that delay the purchase of medical equipment and make them more expensive.
There is no doubt that the economic effects of China’s measures to tackle the coronavirus will ripple across the Asia-Pacific region. Mia Mikic, Jeong Ho Yoo, Richard Sean Lobo and Pedro Romao from UNESCAP examine which countries in the region may be most affected, and posit how in an environment of increasing protectionism and isolationism, COVID-19 is set to become a stress test to both China’s role in the global economy and the way in which nations cooperate to respond to external shocks.
Facing up to the surreal and unprecedented changes society is undertaking in response to the coronavirus, Elke Verhaeghe reflects on the washing away of the notion of being ‘untouchable’ felt by many in Europe prior to the crisis, and pleads that this sense of urgency remain post-coronavirus to tackle another crisis of our time – climate change.
A question posed time and time again about Brexit, on both sides of the channel, is what happens if it turns out to be good for the UK? Samuel Standaert evaluates just how realistic this prospect is, given the level of economic integration and trade between the two parties, and outlines what he believes are the conditions that would allow a prosperous UK in a post-Brexit Europe.
As countries around the world struggle to contain the spread of the Coronavirus, it is becoming increasingly apparent that a coordinated response at all levels is required. María Belén Herrero examines the lessons to be learnt from Latin America, and how South-South cooperation style policy, based on a horizontal relationship and peer cooperation, may hold the answers.
While there is increasing exchange between researchers, politicians and social society actors on migration, writes UNU-CRIS Assistant Professor Ine Lietaert, the current debates fail to address the most pertinent question of all – is the path we’re on now leading to the kind of society we want?
Among the most pressing issues facing the new EU Commission, migration figures high on the agenda, however previous political unwillingness to bring about true, transformative migration policies at both the EU and national levels has resulted in the recycling of long-standing policy refrains and an overreliance on problematic remedies. Rossella Marino looks at the current return migration policy and its outlook in 2020 and beyond.
While the trends of today appear to revolve around nationalism and a return to hard borders - in other words, towards disintegration - Filippo Blancato explores what French-Algerian philosopher Albert Camus and his work L’Homme Revolté (The Rebel) can teach us about conflict, history and the future of cooperation among men and nations, and how the EU can tame the forces that produce tension and separation.
Regions and Cities as Foreign Policy Actors: Between Reviving the Past and Implementing the Contemporary
California defies Donald Trump on the Paris Climate Agreement. Flanders opens a foreign office of its own and joins the UN World Tourism Organization as an independent member. A fresh push for a Scottish referendum in light of Brexit. These are all examples of paradiplomacy, writes Philipp Häntsche, an understudied, yet ever-present, form of international relations.
The Irish question has become one of the main sticking points of the Brexit negotiations, with 'backstop' entering the vocabulary of millions of onlookers throughout the process. With another deadline passed and a general election looming, Susannah Dibble asks how the European Union can best carry out the delicate task of disentangling its relationship with the United Kingdom while helping to maintain a Northern Irish peace built on regional integration.
While the African Union's ambitious set of reforms introduced in 2016 took steps in the right direction, Nandi Makubalo asks the question - are these worth the hype or must more be done in order for it to realize the SDGs and Agenda 2063?
With the US-China trade war showing few signs of abating, the EU-MERCOSUR deal in jeopardy and a rift between Japan and South Korea growing wider, it's clear the global trade and investment landscape is in a parlous condition. Filippo Blancato looks at what the current pushback against regional economic governance bodes for the future, and what the EU must do to reinvigorate the multilateral trade system.
Much has been said about this interconnected world, about common challenges faced by countries, and the relationship between the domestic and international spheres. Glaucia Bernardo and Leonardo Mèrcher look at internationalisation, a concept that has come to play a part in our daily lives, and in particular its impact on higher education.
As the Amazon burns and the tensions between Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro and the international community grow, Elke Verhaeghe and Marjolein Derous look at the EU's chequered past when it comes to forest protection and sustainability, and what the new EU Commission can do to save the 'lungs of our planet'.
On the hottest day ever recorded in Belgium, UNU-CRIS Director Ad Interim Prof. Dr. Luc Soete outlines why UNU-CRIS is hot - both in the setting of the historic Episcopal Seminary in which it is housed, and as the place to be for addressing intellectual challenges dealing with how to govern the big challenges of our time.