The Implications of Counterterrorism Strategies for Human Security in Europe: The Cases of Germany, France and the United Kingdom
In the immediate aftermath of the September 11 2001 attacks, the EU and its Member States quickly committed themselves to doing all in their power to combat terrorism under the EU Action Plan on Combating Terrorism. As Den Boer and Monar argued, September 11 was regarded as the first truly ‘cross-pillar’ test of the Union’s role as a security actor, involving not only the second and third pillars, but even the first insofar as the fight was also against the financing of terrorism. New structures obligated all Member States to introduce legislation bringing the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) into force by 1 January 2004, and sought to create faster and simpler procedures. Moreover, following the bombings in Madrid, and then subsequently London, the EU further accelerated efforts to construct a common response to terrorism.