Recalibrating the Classic Models of Mediation: Former Leaders and Hybrid Personality-Network Driven Initiatives in the Venezuela Crisis
This article examines the shift away from the classic models of mediation to a hybrid personality-network approach with specific reference to the Venezuela crisis. Instead of third-party mediators possessing formal organizational standing and resources, the focus of this recalibrated model is placed on voluntary initiatives driven by ex- leaders. Of particular interest is the set of activities via Jimmy Carter and the former Prime Minister of Spain, Jose Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. As witnessed by the Venezuela crisis, space is available for engagement combining empowered agency and network partnerships. While Carter and Rodríguez Zapatero were in the forefront of building and implementing this team effort, however, they faced as individuals most of the risks attached to implementing the recalibrated model.