Diversity without Unity: The European Union's Cultural Diplomacy vis-à-vis the United States
This article examines how, to what extent and why the European Union (EU) engages in cultural diplomacy (CD) vis-à-vis the United States (US). While providing an empirical review of and conceptual reflection on the current state of the EU’s (including key Member States’ (MS’)) CD efforts vis-à-vis the US, it also strives to explain the forms of this activity. It finds that a complex, multi-level, multi-actor, multifaceted and multipurpose EU CD in the US currently exists, which displays ‘diversity without unity’ and faces several incoherencies. This finding can be explained primarily by a latent competition for attention between EU MS. The article concludes by reflecting on how a more coherent EU CD could be achieved, thereby helping to reinvigorate EU-US relations.